The Central Superior Services of Pakistan (or commonly known as CSS) have become the key wheels on which the entire engine of the state has to move. Hence the leaders for these services are drawn through the competitive examination. The officers thus appointed are bestowed with solemn responsibilities and are scheduled to hold the highest offices of the country.
Pakistan today needs young men and women, with qualities of both head and heart. To choose only such balanced individuals is the purpose of the civil services examination. So if you have intelligence, intellect, team-spirit, leadership qualities, commonsense, originality, communication skills and have a dynamic personality, then Civil Service is waiting for you. Join Civil Service of Pakistan through CSS examination.
Federal Public Service Commission of Pakistan or FPSC (http://www.fpsc.gov.pk/) is the Competitive Examinations with full honesty. According to the estimates of FPSC a total of 8,000 – 10,000 candidates apply for an appearance in its annual Competitive Examination. On an average 5,000 – 6,000 actually appear and approximately 250-500 candidates qualify the written portion of CSS Examination. Out of these successful candidates a total of 100-150 (roughly 2% of the actual applicants) make it to this sacred corps of bureaucrats.
Currently CSS includes the following Occupational Groups.
- Pakistan Audit and Accounts Service
- Police Service of Pakistan (PSP)
- District Management Group (DMG)
- Income Tax Group (ITG)
- Customs and Excise Group (CEG)
- Foreign Service of Pakistan (FSP)
- Postal Group (PG)
- Commerce & Trade Group (CTG)
- Railways Group (RG)
- · Information Group (IG)
History of Civil Services in Pakistan
The civil Bureaucracy is a colonial legacy in this part of the world. The British used to rule the native population through Indian Civil Service (ICS) and most of the officers in ICS were British themselves. It was in the early 20th Century that the Indians also started competing against the British and many Indians eventually made it to the ICS. With the partition of India in 1947, the term ‘Central Superior Services’ was used in Pakistan and the concept of All-Pakistan Services continued.
The latter consisted of the Civil Service of Pakistan and the Police Service of Pakistan, whereas the Central Services included the Pakistan Foreign Service and a broad category of Finance and other services. The Finance category included the Pakistan Audit and Accounts Service, Pakistan Railway Accounts Service, Pakistan Military Accounts Service, Pakistan Taxation Service, and the Pakistan Customs and Excise Service and others. Each of these services had its own cadre and composition rules, specifying the total cadre strength in terms of its number of positions.
The Competitive Examination comprises the Following:
Composition of CSS Examination
- · Written Examination
- · Medical Test
- · Psychological Test; and
- · Viva Voce
CSS Examination Rules
The examination is conducted by the Federal Public Service Commission in accordance with the following Rules.
A candidate for admission to the examination must have attained the age of 21 years
The upper age limit will be relaxed by two years up to the age of 30 years in respect of:
- The candidates belonging to the Scheduled Caste and Buddhist Community
- In the case of in Service Government Servants the upper age limit is relaxable by two Years.
A candidate must hold at least a Second Class or Grade “C” bachelor’s degree in any faculty of one of the Pakistani Universities or an equivalent degree or comparable educational qualifications of a foreign University recognized by Higher Education Commission, Islamabad.
The candidate must be a citizen of Pakistan or a person deriving his/her nationality from the State of Jammu and Kashmir.
All candidates except disabled must be in good mental and bodily health and free from any physical defect
Introduction – Who are accountants?
Accountancy profession in Pakistan and elsewhere is generally considered to be monotonous, time consuming as compared to other professions like Engineering, Arts etc.
Accountants are often projected as boring people with nothing to do except for talking in terms of numbers, facts and figures. This may however, be true in some circumstances, but may not hold true in totality.
Accounts and finance are not one and the same thing. Book keeping is a different thing and financial analysis is another. When we talk about accounting, there are various levels of accounting, namely Operational Accounting which includes book keeping, day to day transaction tracking etc. Then we have Financial Management which is a higher level. In it, we learn about sources of funds, managing funds, manipulating funds and giving all stakeholders the maximum which could be earned out of their wealth. Investment accounting in itself is a whole world.
What are the areas which relate to accounting and you may study? The highest level of accounting degree in Pakistan is Chartered Accountancy or CA which has a combination of studies with four years of hands-on training in a Chartered Accountant firm. The Institute of Chartered Accountant of Pakistan is the governing body conducting its examination. Information may be obtained from their website at www.icap.org.pk. There are few chartered accountants in Pakistan not because it is difficult, but because of lack of awareness. People do not know about this profession, degree and the fact is that it is not as difficult as it is perceived to be.
Cost and Management Accountancy
Then we come across cost and management accountancy or commonly called, CMA. The Institute of Cost and Management Accountants of Pakistan is the governing body conducting examination for this qualification. Their website is www.icmap.com.pk and all required information can be obtained from this website. The difference between this and CA is that CMA may be done without any mandatory training. You have to study, take exams and pass. Pass rates are generally lower and you may be surprised to know that there are more CAs in Pakistan than CMAs.
Further, one year work experience is mandatory to have CMA qualification. In addition to it, final comprehensive examination based on two case studies is already in practice since 2006. Students are not able to get degree without passing comprehensive exam, being taken after passing all stages.
ACCA & CIMA
Then we have two related foreign qualifications, namely ACCA and CIMA, both of UK origin. ACCA is a second tier degree in UK which stands for Association of Chartered Certified Accountants (website www.accaglobal.com). This is new for the Pakistani student and many students in general are moving to UK on the basis of getting admission in colleges of ACCA. This qualification can also be completed without any mandatory training, although ACCA requires at least three years post or pre-qualification work experience before awarding its membership. However, since it is an ‘internationally recognized qualification’, students prefer to go for it.
Chartered Institute of Management Accountants (CIMA) or which is also termed as CMA of UK (equivalent to CMA of Pakistan). Very few students go for CIMA qualification. Reason again being lack of awareness among the student cadres. In UK CIMA qualification is more related to decision making and those who do this are considered to be part of management who will help the higher management in decision-making. Their core paper includes a case study and this type of exam is missing in the three abovementioned qualifications. (website: www.cimaglobal.com)
Future Outlook for Accounting Career
Employment jobs for accountants and auditors are expected to grow faster than all occupations in the coming years. The factors that will drive the growth of this career are, increasing businesses, securitization of companies finance, changing and new up-and-coming rules and regulation of financial sector.
Teachers are architects of a country’s destiny. The teacher enjoys a divining status in almost every religion. The profession of teaching, therefore, deserves the highest level of respect. Teachers have a very important role in Basic education and training to fulfill the growing needs of trained and skilled Labour force in every walk of life. In the childhood, parents are responsible to child training but further on, it is the teachers who teach them to enter into practical life. There the role of teacher comes.
Thus, Teachers are definitely the most important people to persuade our lives after our parents. We learn to see the world, we gain the ability to understand that world and we obtain the ability to use our intelligence, imagination and talent, all these are possible because of our teachers.
With the passage of time, the teaching professions in Pakistan change its trend and importance. Today one has got tremendous opportunities if one chooses teaching as a career. Almost all the Governments of the world have to allocate more funds as it is now become a reality that the world of tomorrow will belong to those who has the wealth of education. This concept becomes the major reason of establishing numerous education institutions in the world. As long as educational institutions, universities, colleges and schools are establishing, the importance of the teachers will further be increased.
Teaching opportunities in Pakistan
There are ample opportunities for teachers in Pakistan. Constant promotion of education, growing interest of the governments and the establishments of private and public schools, colleges and universities have further enhanced opportunities in this field. Today one can adopt the field of teaching as a school teacher or a lecturer or professor in the colleges or universities. Teachers are offered very good salaries and allowances in the private sector institutions. Educational foundations have been set up in all the provinces to encourage and provide financial support to educated individual for setting up schools. Many new schools are established every year. Trained and qualified teachers will always be on demand in the coming days. Even a master degree holder in Pakistan Studies has attractive opportunities for lecturers in colleges and universities. Keeping in view of the future, there will be great demand of teachers who are sincere, hardworking, and interested in this career option.
Working Environment For Teachers
Teaching is not a part-time career job; teachers should always be ready and prepared for hardwork and betterment of the students. They should prepare and plan their lesson which is to be taught prior to their arrival to the class room.
Teaching profession is very suitable for those people who like social life. Teachers are respected and famous in the society especially in villages and small towns. Teachers have pupils in every walk of life who cause solution of their different problems. Teachers are provided leave in the summer and the winter season to be active and fresh.
Teaching Related professions and occupations
After having completing different courses in teaching, teachers become eligible for direct appointment as school headmaster, instructor, supervisor, education officer, assistant director, deputy director, and so on. Teachers are given priority in job opportunities in the education department.
In the public sector, teachers who have qualified PTC (Primary Teaching Certificate) are employed as teacher in BPS-7 in government schools, while those who have CT (Certificate of Teaching) are offered JST (Junior School Teachers) Job in BPS-9. B.Ed passed teachers is inducted as HST (Higher School Teachers) in BPS-15. Headmasters and Subject Specialist teachers are offered jobs in grade 17 (BPS-17) in comprehensive schools. Additional allowances are also presented to them. Teachers who are employed as Eastern Education teachers, drawing teachers and physical training instructor offered grades 9 and 15 as per their qualification and training. Master degree holders have opportunities to get the job of a lecturer in the colleges and universities in BPS-17. Excellent opportunities are available in the private sector institutions, schools, colleges and universities.
Profession of Teaching… From an HR consultant’s point of view:
Rahela Narijo, a leading HR consultant and Trainer speaks about the Profession of Teaching.
“I really wish people would stop looking at teaching as a way out or as a last resort. Just being good in a particular field or having a masters or Ph.D degree does not automatically qualify you to be a teacher. Not everyone can become a teacher because not everyone possesses the competencies or aptitude for teaching.
First ask yourself why you are considering teaching as a profession. If the reason is anything other than “to make a positive impact on young, developing minds and to groom a future generation,” then do everything a favour and stay away from teaching. Teaching has never been about monetary gains. If you want to make money, then stay in your current job. Teaching itself is science. To become a qualified teacher you need a certain degree of training in this science. But it is also a passion; teaching is often referred to as a noble profession.
So, before deciding on pursuing teaching, carefully identify your true motivation for doing so because too much damage has already been done to this profession by those before you. Is teaching an option because you can’t “do” your current job or is it a passion because you want to make a positive impact on the lives of others? Or as the actor Jack Black says in one of my favorite movies, the School of Rock, “those who can’t do, teach and those who can’t teach … teach gym.” You decide which category you fall in”.
Teaching Courses and degree programmes
- M.A (Education)
- P.hd (Education)
For B.Ed: B.A (Pass)
For M.Ed: B.Ed
For M.A (Education): B.A (pass) with education