Speaking in Jhelum on November 24, Chief of Army Staff (COAS) General Ashfaq Parvez Kayani said that Pakistan-China relations were purely strategic and were not against any other country, and that they would actually help in the promotion of regional and global peace. He had just attended the closing ceremony of a two-week-long Pakistan-China Joint Military Exercise Friendship-IV-2011.
Lest the world take him as speaking tongue-in-cheek, he added that China’s security was dear to Pakistan and such joint exercises would strengthen relations between the two countries, which were facing the common threat of terrorism. He further disarmed regional and global suspicion by pointing to the fact that Pakistan was in the routine of having such joint exercises with other countries as well and had conducted them with 50 other countries.
But the sad truth is that conflict is still the working paradigm in South Asia and in the world. When General Kayani said ‘purely strategic’ relations with China, he probably thought that this would take the adversarial regional mind away from ideas of hostile combinations of force. The fact is that the Jhelum exercise will not fail to elicit negative interpretation and much of that will be based on ‘explanatory’ statements made in Pakistan but not in China, where foreign policy intent is not worn by the politicians on their sleeves.
Unless suspicion is disarmed through codependent trade relations with India, the neighbouring state will go towards seeing any Pakistan-China development as directed against it. India sees much more in the Karakoram Highway, built by the Chinese, than just a trade artery. It says it is a flanking move to challenge India in Kashmir, where Indian troops are deployed, and that Chinese troops are actually deployed in the Gilgit-Baltistan region (something that both Pakistan and China have denied). India has always linked Pakistan’s nuclear programme and its weaponisation to China. The rest of the world, too, is suspicious of China’s policy towards South Asia in general and Pakistan-Afghanistan in particular.
In Pakistan, strategists don’t help by looking at the American presence in Afghanistan as being aimed against China — as a challenge to China’s forward move in Central Asia. Pakistani leaders openly say that new contacts with China should be aimed at shifting Pakistan’s big traditional dependencies on America to its all-weather friend, China. Of course, this can have its negative effects in Pakistan, where cheap Chinese imports could deal a devastating blow to local industry and businesses.
What makes matters worse is that Pakistan’s relationship with China is — as is much of foreign policy— dictated by the military which dominates policymaking and sets the narrative and public discourse on how we perceive and deal with the outside world. This is perhaps why we are programmed to look at relations with China as a counter to Indian influence in the region and seem to prefer it over relations with America, which happens to be one of our largest aid donors and largest trading partners. Over time, the elected civilian government in Pakistan needs to take greater ownership of this bilateral relationship so that it can be weaned away from purely defence to social sectors. Right now, the perception that is determined by the armed forces in Pakistan is a fair one, and it is inevitable that the military is the one who stands to benefit the most from it. Of course, this is merely to point out that the benefits of such a deep relationship should accrue also to ordinary Pakistanis, especially in fields which concern and benefit them.
Pakistan’s isolationism and internal civil-military contradictions are retarding its progress towards a prosperous market state that can look after its large population better. To achieve this, Pakistan must stay on the course of normalising its relations with India through free trade and allowing India to trade with Central Asia through its territory the same way it is willing to serve as a transit territory for the movement of goods from Gwadar to the western regions of China. If we were to learn the philosophy behind China’s conduct in addition to just doing military exercises, we would do what the world wants from us and not adopt an unrealistic defiant posture.
ISLAMABAD: Festivities that were held across the country to celebrate the World Tourism Day have underlined that this crucial sector be used for attaining national harmony and progress.
Tourism is one of the largest revenue-generating industries worldwide and the second biggest in Malaysia after manufacturing. Its share in Pakistan’s economy, however, has not reached the level it should have.
According to Managing Director Shahjahan Khetran, tourism could be used as a vital tool through which national harmony and progress could be achieved.
The MD was addressing a seminar held to mark the World Tourism Day organised jointly by PTDC and Association of Tour Operators. Khetran said tourism could also play a vital role in socio-economic development of the country.
PTDC celebrated the day being the national tourism organisation and affiliate member of the UN World Tourism Organisation (UNWTO).
Khetran underlined the need for promoting Pakistani culture and tourism at an international level.
He added that PTDC was promoting and developing tourism infrastructure in far-flung areas of the country, where the private sector was wary of investing.
He said that through coordinated efforts, domestic tourism had increased during the past three years.
Seminars, photographic exhibitions and wall climbing competitions were organised in collaboration with and support of different NGOs.
Pakistan Association of Tour Operators (PATO) Vice President Ayaz Shigri said that Gilgit-Baltistan had enormous potential for adventure and nature-loving domestic and foreign tourists.
He highlighted the need for better coordination among provincial and federal tourism organisations so that the common goal of supporting Pakistan’s national economy can be achieved.
Rawalpindi Chambers of Commerce and Industry Acting President Attiqueur Rehman said that the federal government should retain an organisation like PTDC at the federal level to regulate and promote tourism on a national and global level.
Sustainable Tourism Organisation President Aftabur Rehman Rana highlighted the importance of the preservation of natural and scenic beauty through sustainable tourism development.
He said it was a national duty to preserve the natural environment and cultural heritage so that next generations could also enjoy the beauty of the country.
Tourism For Life Chief Executive Officer Yasir Ilyas Khan introduced his organisation’s voluntary work in tourism, education and health sectors, particularly in Azad Jammu and Kashmir.
He said that 60 percent of Pakistan’s population consisted of its youth and added that to invest in the youth was to invest in Pakistan’s future. app
The Central Superior Services of Pakistan (or commonly known as CSS) have become the key wheels on which the entire engine of the state has to move. Hence the leaders for these services are drawn through the competitive examination. The officers thus appointed are bestowed with solemn responsibilities and are scheduled to hold the highest offices of the country.
Pakistan today needs young men and women, with qualities of both head and heart. To choose only such balanced individuals is the purpose of the civil services examination. So if you have intelligence, intellect, team-spirit, leadership qualities, commonsense, originality, communication skills and have a dynamic personality, then Civil Service is waiting for you. Join Civil Service of Pakistan through CSS examination.
Federal Public Service Commission of Pakistan or FPSC (http://www.fpsc.gov.pk/) is the Competitive Examinations with full honesty. According to the estimates of FPSC a total of 8,000 – 10,000 candidates apply for an appearance in its annual Competitive Examination. On an average 5,000 – 6,000 actually appear and approximately 250-500 candidates qualify the written portion of CSS Examination. Out of these successful candidates a total of 100-150 (roughly 2% of the actual applicants) make it to this sacred corps of bureaucrats.
Currently CSS includes the following Occupational Groups.
- Pakistan Audit and Accounts Service
- Police Service of Pakistan (PSP)
- District Management Group (DMG)
- Income Tax Group (ITG)
- Customs and Excise Group (CEG)
- Foreign Service of Pakistan (FSP)
- Postal Group (PG)
- Commerce & Trade Group (CTG)
- Railways Group (RG)
- · Information Group (IG)
History of Civil Services in Pakistan
The civil Bureaucracy is a colonial legacy in this part of the world. The British used to rule the native population through Indian Civil Service (ICS) and most of the officers in ICS were British themselves. It was in the early 20th Century that the Indians also started competing against the British and many Indians eventually made it to the ICS. With the partition of India in 1947, the term ‘Central Superior Services’ was used in Pakistan and the concept of All-Pakistan Services continued.
The latter consisted of the Civil Service of Pakistan and the Police Service of Pakistan, whereas the Central Services included the Pakistan Foreign Service and a broad category of Finance and other services. The Finance category included the Pakistan Audit and Accounts Service, Pakistan Railway Accounts Service, Pakistan Military Accounts Service, Pakistan Taxation Service, and the Pakistan Customs and Excise Service and others. Each of these services had its own cadre and composition rules, specifying the total cadre strength in terms of its number of positions.
The Competitive Examination comprises the Following:
Composition of CSS Examination
- · Written Examination
- · Medical Test
- · Psychological Test; and
- · Viva Voce
CSS Examination Rules
The examination is conducted by the Federal Public Service Commission in accordance with the following Rules.
A candidate for admission to the examination must have attained the age of 21 years
The upper age limit will be relaxed by two years up to the age of 30 years in respect of:
- The candidates belonging to the Scheduled Caste and Buddhist Community
- In the case of in Service Government Servants the upper age limit is relaxable by two Years.
A candidate must hold at least a Second Class or Grade “C” bachelor’s degree in any faculty of one of the Pakistani Universities or an equivalent degree or comparable educational qualifications of a foreign University recognized by Higher Education Commission, Islamabad.
The candidate must be a citizen of Pakistan or a person deriving his/her nationality from the State of Jammu and Kashmir.
All candidates except disabled must be in good mental and bodily health and free from any physical defect
Teachers are architects of a country’s destiny. The teacher enjoys a divining status in almost every religion. The profession of teaching, therefore, deserves the highest level of respect. Teachers have a very important role in Basic education and training to fulfill the growing needs of trained and skilled Labour force in every walk of life. In the childhood, parents are responsible to child training but further on, it is the teachers who teach them to enter into practical life. There the role of teacher comes.
Thus, Teachers are definitely the most important people to persuade our lives after our parents. We learn to see the world, we gain the ability to understand that world and we obtain the ability to use our intelligence, imagination and talent, all these are possible because of our teachers.
With the passage of time, the teaching professions in Pakistan change its trend and importance. Today one has got tremendous opportunities if one chooses teaching as a career. Almost all the Governments of the world have to allocate more funds as it is now become a reality that the world of tomorrow will belong to those who has the wealth of education. This concept becomes the major reason of establishing numerous education institutions in the world. As long as educational institutions, universities, colleges and schools are establishing, the importance of the teachers will further be increased.
Teaching opportunities in Pakistan
There are ample opportunities for teachers in Pakistan. Constant promotion of education, growing interest of the governments and the establishments of private and public schools, colleges and universities have further enhanced opportunities in this field. Today one can adopt the field of teaching as a school teacher or a lecturer or professor in the colleges or universities. Teachers are offered very good salaries and allowances in the private sector institutions. Educational foundations have been set up in all the provinces to encourage and provide financial support to educated individual for setting up schools. Many new schools are established every year. Trained and qualified teachers will always be on demand in the coming days. Even a master degree holder in Pakistan Studies has attractive opportunities for lecturers in colleges and universities. Keeping in view of the future, there will be great demand of teachers who are sincere, hardworking, and interested in this career option.
Working Environment For Teachers
Teaching is not a part-time career job; teachers should always be ready and prepared for hardwork and betterment of the students. They should prepare and plan their lesson which is to be taught prior to their arrival to the class room.
Teaching profession is very suitable for those people who like social life. Teachers are respected and famous in the society especially in villages and small towns. Teachers have pupils in every walk of life who cause solution of their different problems. Teachers are provided leave in the summer and the winter season to be active and fresh.
Teaching Related professions and occupations
After having completing different courses in teaching, teachers become eligible for direct appointment as school headmaster, instructor, supervisor, education officer, assistant director, deputy director, and so on. Teachers are given priority in job opportunities in the education department.
In the public sector, teachers who have qualified PTC (Primary Teaching Certificate) are employed as teacher in BPS-7 in government schools, while those who have CT (Certificate of Teaching) are offered JST (Junior School Teachers) Job in BPS-9. B.Ed passed teachers is inducted as HST (Higher School Teachers) in BPS-15. Headmasters and Subject Specialist teachers are offered jobs in grade 17 (BPS-17) in comprehensive schools. Additional allowances are also presented to them. Teachers who are employed as Eastern Education teachers, drawing teachers and physical training instructor offered grades 9 and 15 as per their qualification and training. Master degree holders have opportunities to get the job of a lecturer in the colleges and universities in BPS-17. Excellent opportunities are available in the private sector institutions, schools, colleges and universities.
Profession of Teaching… From an HR consultant’s point of view:
Rahela Narijo, a leading HR consultant and Trainer speaks about the Profession of Teaching.
“I really wish people would stop looking at teaching as a way out or as a last resort. Just being good in a particular field or having a masters or Ph.D degree does not automatically qualify you to be a teacher. Not everyone can become a teacher because not everyone possesses the competencies or aptitude for teaching.
First ask yourself why you are considering teaching as a profession. If the reason is anything other than “to make a positive impact on young, developing minds and to groom a future generation,” then do everything a favour and stay away from teaching. Teaching has never been about monetary gains. If you want to make money, then stay in your current job. Teaching itself is science. To become a qualified teacher you need a certain degree of training in this science. But it is also a passion; teaching is often referred to as a noble profession.
So, before deciding on pursuing teaching, carefully identify your true motivation for doing so because too much damage has already been done to this profession by those before you. Is teaching an option because you can’t “do” your current job or is it a passion because you want to make a positive impact on the lives of others? Or as the actor Jack Black says in one of my favorite movies, the School of Rock, “those who can’t do, teach and those who can’t teach … teach gym.” You decide which category you fall in”.
Teaching Courses and degree programmes
- M.A (Education)
- P.hd (Education)
For B.Ed: B.A (Pass)
For M.Ed: B.Ed
For M.A (Education): B.A (pass) with education
Journalism is defined as discipline of collecting, writing and reporting news, it includes the process of editing and presenting the news articles. Journalism relates to different media including newspapers, magazines, radio, and television. Youths are jumping towards career in mass communication in Pakistan as there create tremendous jobs opportunities in said field. Universities are offering courses mass communication and in journalism. Career in journalism can be started by getting admission in diploma in journalism or master in journalism programs.
Journalists are people who always in search of who, what, when, where, why and how. Journalists state the significance and effects of events or trends. A Journalist is to work in the field of newspapers, television, radio, magazines and the World Wide Web through the Internet (online journals).
Journalists not only work in the office but in the field. Those journalists, who work in the offices, are responsible for collecting news, articles, events, messages, announcements and other substances received through different sources. They make the material publishable by composing and computerizing and then arrange them in the shape of newspaper. Journalists who like field journalism have to cover events in the field. They have to work in an environment where there is no time schedule and have to response to the events as quickly as possible to cover it in a way exceptional from other.
Those who want to choose mass communication as career must follow some guidelines includes:
- The first obligation of a journalist is stick to “the truth”.
- They must remain independent about what they cover.
- They should exercise their personal conscience.
- They should be independent monitor of power.
- First loyalty is to the citizens.
- Strive to make the significant interesting and relevant.
- Must know the importance of Verification of events.
- Keeping the news comprehensive and proportional is a key responsibility.
Journalists have enjoyed some privileges not enjoyed by members of the general public, including better access to public events, crime scenes and press conferences, and to extended interviews with public officials, celebrities and others in the public eye. These privileges are available because of the perceived power of the press to turn public opinion for or against governments, their officials and policies, as well as the perception that the press often represents their consumers. These privileges extend from the legal rights of journalists but are not guaranteed by those rights. Sometimes government officials may attempt to punish individual journalists who irk them by denying them some of these privileges extended to other journalists.
Journalists who cover conflicts, whether wars between nations or insurgencies within nations, often give up any expectation of protection by government, if not giving up their rights to protection by government. Journalists who are captured or detained during a conflict are expected to be treated as civilians and to be released to their national government.
New comers initially are associated with a senior journalist where he gets training and learn skills. Despite that, one should have the following qualities before choosing journalism as career:
- Truthfulness and Strong character
- Impartiality and unbiased
- Well mannered and truthfulness
- Alert and intelligent
- Enthusiastic and fever
- Confident and Responsible
- Honest and sincere
- Diligent and Courageous
Mass communication is getting popularity day by day. The way events are emerging round the world today, opportunities are increasing in this field. Print and electronic media offers tremendous career options in mass communication. The situation of has totally changed now. Increase in literacy rate, industrial development and advancement in technology have pleasantly affected the print and electronic media in Pakistan. More than sixty (approx.) news and entertainment television channels are broadcasting their Programmes today. The traditional miserable situations of news papers are totally changed. Remunerations of the working have increased approximately twenty times that of the pre partition time.
More than 300 (approx.) newspapers have been given declaration. Those who have proper qualification i.e. master degree in journalism or mass communication from a recognized university prove more successful. On the job training further open window of opportunities. It is therefore a very attractive career choice for the youth. Hardworking and aspiration to get perfection in this field result a very successful career.
Universities offering programs in Journalism and Mass Communication
- University of Karachi, Karachi
- Iqra University, Karachi
- Jinnah University, Karachi
- Mohammad Ali Jinnah University, Karachi
- Nazeer Hussain University, Karachi
- University of Sindh, Jamshoro
- Allama Iqbal Open University, Islamabad
- Bahria University, Islamabad
- Federal Urdu University of Arts, Sciences and Technology, Islamabad
- Foundation University, Rawalpindi
- International Islamic University, Islamabad
- Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad
- Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan
- Fatima Jinnah Women University, Rawalpindi
- Government College University Faisalabad, Faisalabad
- Islamia University, Bahawalpur
- Minhaj University, Lahore
- University of Central Punjab, Lahore
- University of Education, Lahore
- University of Faisalabad, Faisalabad
- University of Gujrat, Gujrat
- University of Lahore, Lahore
- University of the Punjab, Lahore
- University of Sargodha, Sargodha
- University of South Asia, Lahore
- University of Peshawar, Peshawar
- Sardar Bahadur Khan Women University, Quetta
- University of Balochistan, Quetta
- Shah Abdul Latif University, Khairpur
- Al-Khair University, AJK
- Mohi-ud-Din Islamic University, AJK
- University of Azad Jammu & Kashmir, Muzaffarabad, AJK
Until the explosion of information technology and developments in communication in the late 20th century, the genre of travelogue remained a vital source to acquire knowledge about exotic lands, customs and people.
That is why travelogues fascinated curious minds and historians for centuries. However, travelogues, with a few exceptions, also proved to be a source of myth-making. Salman Rashid, an eminent Pakistani travel writer, in his recent articles in English newspapers, including this newspaper, has ventured into a domain of history to prove his argument that the Silk Road did not run through Pakistan. Despite the fact that he is dealing with history, he has evinced evidence for his argument from travellers like Marco Polo and Wilhelm of Rubruck whose itinerary did not take them to the region of Karakoram. As a result, he ends up creating another myth that is diametrically opposite to what is proved by historical research on the Silk Road.
In order to get a proper understanding of the Silk Road, it is imperative to take into consideration historical research that is based on the accounts of old travellers who traversed the region as well as archaeological findings. Unfortunately, the seasoned travel writer of Pakistan does not mention the former and employs the latter to furnish his argument — that none of the rock carvings along KKH mentioned silk. Taking cue from this, he argues that it proves that no silk ever came this way. Therefore, Rashid declares, KKH being Silk Road is a fiction created by an unknown “pigmy” bureaucrat.
In fact, there were two major routes of the Silk Road spreading westward and southward. The Western route went through Central Asia to Mediterranean Sea. The Southern route has many arteries that led to Taxila and Indian heartland. Among these arteries, the Kashgar to Gilgit route was shorter and a major one. After studying new findings of archeological research on human records in Chilas and Oshibat along KKH, an eminent Indian historian Aloka Parasher-Sen in her research ‘‘Beyond Boundaries — Travellers along the Karakorum’ claims that “scholars now fully agree that this was a crucial artery of communication for centuries.” Well before Marco Polo and Wilhelm of Rubruck, three famous Chinese pilgrims Fa-Hian, Sung-yun and Hiuen Tsang traversed the region in A.D.400, 518 and 630 respectively. They have described in detail people carrying valuable goods and gems while travelling. Fa-Hian describes a function in the region where an assembly was decorated with “silken streamers and canopies are hung out in it and water-lilies in gold and silver are made and fixed up behind the places where the chiefs of them are to sit.” It is illogical to assume that the traders and pilgrims chiselled 30,000 petroglyphs and 5000 inscription on the rocks and boulders but did not carry silk with them on the trading route with other goods.
An important point to note is that Buddhism in the valleys of Karakorum became a great trading religion. Andre Wink in ‘Al-Hind The Making of the Indo-Islamic World’ writes “in the seventh and eight centuries we become aware of the presence of Indian Buddhist traders along the southern silk route, and Buddhist contacts were maintained between some valleys of the Upper Indus (e.g. Gilgit) and the Tarim Basin.” Contrary to Salman Rashid’s views, historians on the Silk Road employed the very rock carvings to prove that southern Silk Road passed through the region of Gilgit-Baltistan. For example, renowned historian Dr Ahmed Hasan Dani in his book ‘Human Records of Karakorum Highway’ declares Gilgit-Baltistan the centre of southern route of the Silk Road that opens a passage for trade to the Indo-Gangetic Plains. Aloka Parasher-Sen asserts that historically the region of Karakorum “saw a continuous stream of people of diverse origin and languages flock her through the high altitude passes and along the banks of the river Indus diverting to various destinations after that.” Unlike Salman Rashid who finds sub-continental Silk Road in India, this Indian scholar claims that among southern routes of Silk Road, the route of Karakorum was major one on which “trade continued unabated”. Until the conquest of Hunza by the British, the state of Hunza arranged marauding parties to plunder the caravans plying from Kashgar to Gilgit and other regions. I have fond memories of listening to my grandfather’s stories about selection of strong men from villages to prepare a posse for attacking the caravans on the Silk Road. This was almost an annual ritual called ‘breaking of Qaratang’. If they weren’t attacking caravans, what were they out to loot in the snow-clad mountains? The Silk Road in Gilgit-Baltistan was not only a trading route but also a major conduit for cultural and religious exchange between South and Central Asia. To sift facts about the Silk Road from fiction, we ought to take into consideration oral history, artistic and religious symbols, collective memory and modern historical research. If we ignore these, we are condemned to rely on modern travellers who spawn more fiction than reality.
The writer is a social scientist based in Islamabad. Email: email@example.com
Courtesy: The News
Gilgit-Baltistan:Pakistan forsees a trans-regional economic zone encompassing China, Pakistan, Afghanistan and Central Asian countries
He pointed out that if this experiment succeeds, over time we will be a little more ambitious and try to explore a trans-regional economic zone encompassing China, Pakistan, Afghanistan and Central Asian countries. This kind of integrative economic networking will fit well into the agenda of the Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO) as well.
Pakistan and China both aspire to enhance connectivity between them. They will achieve this objective by upgrading the Karakoram Highway, building a 411-mile railroad from Havelian to Khunjerab Pass, install a fiber optic link across the border, and explore lying of oil and gas pipelines that can emanate from the Gulf and end up in China’s western region.
“These objectives are daunting. But the close ties between Pakistan and China, the resilience of our two peoples, and the ingenuity of our professionals gives us strong hope that we can achieve them,” he remarked.
He said that China’s economy is fast integrating with the Western Asian and European economies. China’s trade routed via Urumqi, through Khunjerab and Gwadar and destined for Dubai and London, can save more than 5,000 miles and several days of transit time.
Right now, he said, the bulk of the Chinese trade with the Middle East has to pass through the Indian Ocean and the choking point of Malacca Straits. The distance from Dubai to Shanghai is 9,000 miles; from Dubai to Khunjerab 3,300 miles. The advantage is evident.
He said China is reviving the ancient Silk Road. Several criss-crossing modern Silk routes will pass through Pakistan. Pakistan’s unique location connects China with South and Southwest Asia as well as the Arabian Sea and the Middle East. It also constitutes an important artery to Central Asia.
“Xinjiang and northern provinces of Pakistan will form a key plank in the emerging architecture for new silk routes,” he added.
Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and Gilgit- Baltistan border Kashgar prefecture.
Historically, traders from all parts of Pakistan have been coming to Kashgar for various transactions. Every year, Pakistani traders and trade officials form the biggest delegation to the Central and South Asia Commodity Fair.
Naturally businessmen come from Gilgit-Baltistan and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa to Kashgar, but they come from as far as Sialkot, Wazirabad, Lahore, and even Karachi. This is so because there is geographical contiguity between Xinjiang and Pakistan’s northern territories. More importantly, their economies complement each other, Ambassador Khan stated.
Social stability and ethnic harmony, Ambassador Masood Khan said are essential for realizing these dreams.
Pakistan and China have vowed to oppose and defeat the three evil forces of terrorism, separatism, and extremism.
“Our joint efforts in this regard have been productive and successful. But we cannot lower our guard. We cannot allow these forces to undermine the vision of our two peoples to move swiftly towards a stable, cohesive, interdependent and prosperous neighborhood. We have the political will and support of the masses to make this happen. Nothing should stand in our way,” he concluded.